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Experimental Facilities


3D Bulk Analyses

In developing physics-based models for shaping and performance predictions, CAVS is aware of the importance of experimental assessment and quantification of the micromechanisms driving the material evolution during mechanical and reactivity induced deformations. While SEM, TEM and most of standard characterization techniques are limited on 2D information, X-ray computed tomography presents the leading technique for providing exact 3D information and non-destructive measurements. CAVS has purchased a state of the art X-ray tomography system reaching 1 micron resolution from Phoenix X-ray Incorporation. The system is a dual tube capability v|tome|s with possibility to analyze bulk materials with a 225KV microfocus as well as small parts with a 160KeV nanofocus. The system will allow in particular the quantifying of pore fraction and morphology evolution during some stages of the damage evolution. This dual tube v|tome|s will be used by over a dozen academic and industrial projects to bring new insight into understanding complex 3D interactions of materials systems.



8 Camera Video Recording System

A PC-based digital recording system capable of recording up to 8 cameras at full TV resolution at 15+ frames per second.



Aerosizer
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Measurement range: 0.2 to 700 m
Principle of operation: Aerodynamic time-of-flight
Sample rate: up to 100,000 particles/sec
Resolution: 150 channels per decade
Diameter types: Geometric and aerodynamic
Distribution types: Number, surface area, and volume
Plotting modes: Differential and cumulative
Plot type: Linear and logarithmic
Detection system: Dual photomultipliers



Arburg 170U Injection Molding Machine
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Arburg 170U- is ideally suited to micro injection molding applications. Especially for low injection part weights and an optimal dwell time range, the size 30 injection unit can be equipped with a 15 millimeter screw. It can be used to inject minimal product weights of a few hundredths of a gram.



Axiovert Microscope
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ZEISS Axiovert 200 optical microscope reaching
2500X magnification, light and dark field and DIC, motorized stage, and automatic 1000 X-ray inspection system.



Carbolite Tube Furnace
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Temperature range : 500-1600°C
Process Atmosphere : H2, N2, Ar, Air and mixed gases
Ideal for laboratory research, this furnace with a tube diameter of 4” and hot zone length of approximately 6” has programmable temperature controls with multiple soaks and ramps. The furnace is also equipped with a external thermocouple to measure and accurate monitor the actual temperature.



Carver Manual Press
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Carver Press
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CATIA V5

CATIA V5, is an industrial computer aided design package, allowing for advanced product definition, simulation and analysis. CATIA is one component of the comprehensive product lifecycle management package offered to industry through CAVS and our affiliates.



CM Furnace
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Temperature range : 500-1450°C
Process Atmosphere : H2 and Ar
Large chamber size and hot zone (12”12”  12”_ in the furnace allows processing of large sample size. This batch furnace has programmable temperature controls with multiple soaks and ramps. Special feature of this furnace is its ability to debind and sinter in the same cycle.



CNC Lathe

The Haas CNC SL-20 Lathe, with a max turning capacity of 10.3" x 20" and an 8.3" chuck, has a bar capacity of up to 2.0".



CNC Milling

The Haas VF-5 vertical machining center has 50" x 26" x 25" (1270 x 660 x 635 mm) xyz travels and is built utilizing all American-made cast-iron components. This machine is a rugged, medium sized VMC that yields reliability and accuracy.



Creaform Handyscan Optical Laser Digitizer

The Creaform Handyscan optical laser digitizer is capable of very rapid computational geometry creation. Its accuracy is variable depending on capture volume, with the worst case accuracy being +/-.25mm. The Handyscan has been used to digitize objects as large as cars, boats and airplanes, and scan time is quick enough to allow for geometry capture of humans.



DAQ

National Instruments SCXI is a high-performance signal conditioning and switching platform for measurement and automation systems. It provides a single, integrated platform with USB connectivity for all of your signal conditioning and switching needs. An SCXI system consists of multichannel signal conditioning modules which allow you to choose from a wide selection of analog input, analog output, digital I/O, and switching modules.



Debinding Furnace
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Temperature range : 200-1200 C
Process Atmosphere : H2, N2, Ar, Air and mixed gases
Lindberg Furnace is a top loading furnace with a chanber diameter of 10” and height of 6“ and programmable temperature controller. This furnace is typically used for debinding and sintering of low melting alloys and composites. Furnace is equipped with a filter to trap carbon particles resulting from burning off polymers in the compacted and other polymer-assisted shaping processes.



Differential Scanning Calorimeter
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Temperature range: -170 to 700°C Atmosphere: N2, Ar, Air and mixed gases
Resolution: 0.4 W Crucible volume: 30/100 l
Noise RMS: 0.8 W Time constant: 3s
A simple liquid nitrogen cooling accessory for temperatures as low as –170°C,
A cryothermostat cooling device for intermediate temperature ranges:
80°C to +200°C under a flow of Helium
- 50°C to +500°C under a flow of Ar, N2 or dry Air.
DSC typically measures:
Melting temperature and heat of fusion, Crystallization temperature and heat of crystallization, Glass Transition, “Bound” Water



Dilatometer
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UNITHERM MODEL 1161H - measures the expansions and contraction of samples under temperature variation.

Tmax: 1650 oC Atmosphere: H2, N2, Ar, Air
Vacuum operation (optional) Vertical Push Rods
Hydrogen Purge: 10psi maximum (regulated)
0 to 0.5 LPM (0.2 LPM optimal operation)
Nitrogen Purge: 20psi maximum (regulated) (15psi optimal operation)
0 to 0.5 LPM (0.2 LPM optimal operation)
Argon Purge: 20psi maximum (regulated) (15psi optimal operation)
Water cooled purge gas collecting ring and solid copper line
Several back-flask screen (100 meshes) flame arrestors, installed at all inlets and exit ports



Driving Simulator (Realtime Technologies, Inc.)
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This driving simulator is a medium-fidelity system from Realtime Technologies, Inc., that can be used in human factors studies of driver performance and multitasking. Flexible dynamics software combined with a full-size Nissan Maxima cab and a 6DOF motion base allow us to safely and effectively examine human performance during driving. Four screens and on-board LCD monitors display the driving environment. An integrated data and video recording system synchronizes driver control inputs with vehicle performance metrics.

Also integrated into the vehicle cab is a faceLAB eye tracking system (Seeing Machines, Inc.), mounted to the dash. The faceLAB system tracks the corners of the driver's eyes and mouth to provide effective head and eye tracking without the need for a head-mounted system. The data collected by the faceLAB system is also synchronized with the driving simulator data stream, supporting comprehensive driver performance assessment.



Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA)
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Q800 Dynamicmechanical Analyzer; Based on the CMT design, it utilizes state-of-the-art, non-contact, linear drive technology to provide precise control of stress, and air bearings for low friction support. Strain is measured using optical encoder technology that provides unmatched sensitivity and resolution. With its unique design, the Q800 easily outperforms competitive CMT instruments and is ideal for high-stiffness applications including composites.

Temperature range : -150 to 600 C
Modulus range : 103 to 1012 Pa
Frequency range : 0.01 to 200 Hz
Maximum Force : 18 N
Minimum Pretension : 0.001 N
(for tensile test)
Tan delta range : 0.0001 to 10
Dynamic sample : ± 0.5 to 10000 m deformation



EBSD

Electron Back Scanner Diffraction detector attached to the FESEM. Capable of acquiring and analyzing EBSD patterns to determine crystallographic orientation data.



Electromechanical testing systems

Allows for the testing of hard and soft materials in tension, compression and low cycle fatigue over a wide range of temperatures.



EM Model 5869 Compression/Tension
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An Instron electromechanical testing system with a 50kN load frame that uses a variety of different load cells. This machine is capable of conducting tension, compression, and flexure tests at various rates and temperatures up to 350C.



EM Model 5882 Compression/Tension
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An Instron electromechanical testing system with a 100kN load frame that uses a variety of different load cells. This machine is capable of conducting tension, compression, and flexure tests at various rates and temperatures up to 350C.



EMG Data Acquisition Systems

The TeleMyo 2400R telemetric EMG system allows us to receive up to 16 EMG signals wirelessly up to 300 yards away from the receiver. The wireless system provides complete freedom of movement as participants perform tasks in the lab or in the field.

Any signal within the standard measurement range (+/- 5 volts) can be used with the system. The transmitter is lightweight and can be clipped onto a belt.



ENOVIA SmarTeam
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ENOVIA SmarTeam is a collaborative engineering based product lifecycle management software, enabling effective communication, accountability and tracking for multiple projects. CAVS is also developing academic courses utilizing SmarTeam to teach modern manufacturing methodologies to students and industries.



Exo-skeleton Motion Capture Suit

A full-body exo-skeleton Gypsy suit allows us to wirelessly collect motion data in a variety of environments. The Gypsy suit uses a number of potentiometers and a gyroscope mounted on a metal exo-skeleton to track human motion.



Extruder

Randcastle Extruder bench model single screw extruders for laboratory, R&D, and low output production applications. Unique features include patent pending compounding elements (The Recirculator) with twin like performance.



Faro Arm Platinum CMM and Laser Digitizer

The Faro Arm, is an extremely accurate (+/- .030 mm) three-dimensional coordinate measuring machine (CMM). CAVS also possesses a laser digitizing head which allows for rapid geometry creation for inspection and reverse engineering. The laser head is accurate to .01 mm, and is used in conjunction with the Faro arm.

Data is post-processed using Raindrop Geomagic and Qualify.



FEG-SEM
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The SUPRA 40 is a general purpose high resolution FESEM. Excellent imaging properties combined with analytical capabilities makes this workhorse suitable for a wide range of applications such as materials development, failure analysis, nanotechnology and analytical applications. The large specimen chamber allows the use to better configure the SUPRA 40 for specific applications without sacrificing efficiency. The system has superb resolution and image quality at low operating voltages, wide operating voltage range with minimal adjustments required, short working distance for simultaneous high resolution imaging and X-ray analysis, and high probe current and high stability better than 0.2%/h for analytical applications.



Glove Box (DRI-TRAIN System)
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Atmosphere: Ar, N2, He
Purifier: 100% of atmosphere passes through the moisture/oxygen purifier.
Oxygen removal capacity: 10 L
Moisture removal capacity: 0.32 kg at 25 C
Instrumentation: Graphic flow diagram includes switches, flow indicator, vacuum gauge and function lights, dial gauge to monitor vacuum pump performance, adjustable automatic pressure regulation system and foot switch controlling system pressure.



Hardness Tester

LECO LR300TD- Rockwell-Type Hardness Testing Systems



Hopkinson Bar - Compression
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With a state-of-the-art data Acquisition and Processing instruments, which allows for accurate, artifact-free results, this is the most common system used to determine the mechanical properties at high Strain rate.



Hopkinson Bar - Tension
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With a state-of-the-art data Acquisition and Processing instruments, which allows for accurate, artifact-free results, this is the most common system used to determine the mechanical properties at high Strain rate.



Hopkinson Bar - Torsion
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With a state-of-the-art data Acquisition and Processing instruments, which allows for accurate, artifact-free results, this is the most common system used to determine the mechanical properties at high Strain rate.



Hyd. Model 8850 Compression/Tension/Torsion
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Instron Model 8850 is ideal for axial-torsional fatigue and static testing of biomedical, advanced materials and manufactured components.



Hysitron Nanoindentation System
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This system is a depth-sensing nanomechanical testing system. The main purpose of this system is to update, develop and validate our constitutive models and molecular dynamic simulation methods for lightweight automotive and aeronautical component design and performance predictions. The most critical aspect of predicting the behavior of low-density materials under shaping and damage progression during service loads is to understand the inclusion content and microstructure influences on the mechanical response. These mechanisms mainly operate at the nano length scale. For our models, formulated at different size scales, from atoms to the polycrystalline length scale, to capture these fundamental phenomena, it is essential to investigate experimentally the nano scale microstructure-deformation relationships of several designed systems through depth-sensing nanomechanical testing. The system offers the option to perform depth-sensing micromechanical testing as well.



In-situ SEM Stage
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To date only electromechanical actuation is used for load generation in in-situ fatigue testing within scanning electron chambers (SEM). This restricts the range of frequency at a maximum of 1Hz, and at this rate the load must be kept below 10Kg (100N). Applying higher loads and frequencies requires servohydraulic actuation. This technique has never been utilized in SEM chambers because a variety of technical barriers exist:

* Need of novel instruments to manufacture small actuators with high load resistance since a typical size of an SEM chamber is only 150mm*150mm*400mm ;
* Two actuators are required to keep the central zone area of interest immobile for SEM observations ;
* Need of specific software that perfectly synchronizes the two actuators
* The actuators must be shielded to prevent the contamination of the chamber by the hydraulic oil that can cause immediate deterioration of the electron and X-ray detectors.
* To perform tension-compression fatigue tests, a specific fixture system should be designed to grip flat specimens as the common wedge action grips are not compression rated.


A novel revolutionary system was designed based on these technical specifications at Ernest-Fullam in coordination with Instron and Mississippi State University.

High performance FEG-SEM

This is a field emission gun (FEG) scanning electron microscope (SEM) required for three main reasons:

* Providing accurate analysis and high stability required for in-situ fatigue observations during early stages of fatigue crack growth and threshold ;
* Providing high spatial resolution at low accelerating voltages essential for dimensional measurement of very thin oxides formed at the crack surface during threshold regimes (3.5nm at 1KV.) The in-situ measurement of the oxide layer thickness will enable the quantification of the oxidation kinetics ;
* Enabling strain contour measurement capabilities at high spatial resolutions sufficient to quantify the plasticity-induced closure mechanisms associated with fatigue and fatigue crack growth threshold.


A novel revolutionary system was designed based on these technical specifications at Ernest-Fullam in coordination with Instron and Mississippi State University.The microscope contains a 20KV Shottky type field emission gun providing an accelerating voltage in the range of 0.5KV-20KV and a resolution of: 1.5nm @ 20Kv, 1.7nm @ 15KV and 3.5nm @ 1KV. This increase in resolution that FEG SEM delivers will be a centerpiece for future research and development and nanoscale characterization of lightweight materials that exhibit high damage-affecting micro precipitates. It is clear that the new state-of-the-art SEM is required as a starting base in an effort to develop new generation of lightweight materials towards which the DOD and the rest of the research community are pushing. Dr. Mark Horstemeyer's teams have already shown high expertise in FEG-SEM technique since they have succeeded to reach the highest magnification and resolution on oxide layers formed on Alumina-forming alloys.



Injection Molder

Arburg 170U- is ideally suited to micro injection molding applications. Especially for low injection part weights and an optimal dwell time range, the size 30 injection unit can be equipped with a 15 millimeter screw. It can be used to inject minimal product weights of a few hundredths of a gram.



InSite Suite

InSite Suite has been created to provide teachers and trainers with tools needed to create and host computer-based or e-learning content. Suite consists of two applications, InSite Studio and InSite Server. InSite Studio is an easy-to-use design tool for creating adaptive e-learning. Studio has a powerful diagram view that no other tools in the e-learning arena provide. This diagram view allows users a drag and drop interface with a flow chart view of the content. InSite Server provides a hosting environment for the adaptive classes created by Studio. Server is light weight and easily customizable through the use of skins. Server maintains user session data and generates reports on user progress.



Ion Miller TEM

The Model 1010 Ion Mill is a tabletop, PC-controlled precision milling and polishing system for creating high-quality TEM specimens with large electron transparent areas. It is fully programmable and easy to use. The Model 1010 incorporates two independently adjustable, variable energy hollow anode discharge (HAD) ion sources, liquid nitrogen specimen cooling, 0° to 45° milling angles, automatic gas control, and an oil-free vacuum system for ultra-clean specimen processing.



IR Camera Motion Capture System

The lab includes a 16-camera passive infrared motion capture system from MotionAnalysis. A 25'x25' carpeted area in the Human Factors and Ergonomics lab is dedicated to motion capture projects.



Kiln
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Temperature range : 500-1250 °C
Process Atmosphere : N2 & Air
Designed and extensively used in the pottery community, this is a top loading Kiln and has a programmable temperature controller. This kiln has three heat zones and is capable of processing large batch sizes.



Lavision System

This system is an optical displacement measuring system from Lavision Inc. that allows analysis of deformation of solid and granular flows by advanced imaging technique, in 2D as well as 3D, in combination of state of the art gray scale correlation analysis is among the non-conventional mechanical accessories that CAVS acquired. The system is used in all loading frames and structural testing systems to quantify strain contours around microstructural and geometrical heterogeneities.



LECO LM300AT

Microindentation Hardness Testing Systems, Digital display, equipped with printing and data transfer capabilities.



LENS 750

OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS): a Direct Laser Deposition (DLD) additive manufacturing process for metals that uses blown powder and in situ laser. The LENS can also be used for cladding and repair of precious components.

Key Features:

• Dual-Camera Monitoring and Control System

• 500W, 1kW laser power (Nd:YAG)

• Stratonics ThermaViz® melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared camera

• Stratonics ThermaViz® process control capabilities

• 12in x 12in x 12in build envelope
(300mm x 300mm x 300mm)



Melt Flow Indexer



Metallographic Laboratory

Metallographic Sample Preparation; Cutting, Grinding, Mounting, Polishing, Etching, & etc.



Microhardness Tester
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Standard test load: 10-1000 gf
Load applying speed: 50 m/sec
Dwell time: 5 to 40 sec
Objective lens: 2x, 10x and 50x
Maximum measuring length: 200 m (with 50X objective)
Display and Control panel: LED readout of diagonal and hardness
Specimen height: 3.58” (91 mm) maximum
Specimen depth: 4.33” (110 mm) maximum
Dimensions: 3.98” x 3.98” (100 x 100 mm)
Maximum movement: 0.98” x 0.98” (25 x 25)



Microwave Sintering Furnace
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Tmax : 1700 C
Atmosphere : N2, Ar, He
Thermocouple : Type S with platinum foil
Thermal pods : Highly insulating ceramic refractory
Thermcepts : SiC-20, SiC-50, SiC-70, SiC-5-J
Frequency : 2.45 GHz
Software : Multi-Comm
Powder level : For 100% - 2022 and 837W for high and medium For 50% - 1185 and 488W for high and medium
For 20% - 662 and 279W high and medium



MobileEye Portable Eye Tracker

The Mobile Eye is a tetherless eyetracking system that allows complete freedom of movement for participants. Two cameras simultaneously monitor the scene and the participant's eye movements. The device is lightweight and can record up to 75 minutes of eye movement data at 25/30 Hz. After processing, s software outputs a single video with an overlayed cursor representing point-of-gaze.

At CAVS, we have used the system to investigate eye movements during navigation, object assembly, weapons firing, and other complex tasks.



MTS Compression/Tension

MTS 810 Material Testing System- Easily configure the servohydraulic MTS 810 to perform virtually any type of material or component test.



Muffle Furnace
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Lucifer Furnaces; size 7”X7”X18”
Max Temp 2150F



Particle Size Analyzer
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Powder Compacting Tablet Press
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Q-Fog
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The Q-Fog provides the best possible laboratory simulation of natural corrosion. Specimens can be exposed to a series of different environments in a repetitive cycle that reproduces outdoor cyclic conditions. The Q-Fog offers state-of-the-art corrosion testing technology, precision dispersion and ease of operation.



Rockwell Hardness Tester

Load: 60, 100, 150 Kgf
Dwell time: 1-99 sec (Key entry in units of seconds)
Scale display: C, D, A, G, B, F, K, E, H, P, M, L, V, S, R, 15N, 30N, 45N, 15T, 30T, 45T, 15W, 30W, 45W, 15X, 30X, 45X, 15Y, 30Y, 45Y
Maximum specimen height: 6” (155 mm)
Maximum specimen depth: 6” (155 mm)
Dimension: Height-26.75” (675 mm), Width-7.5” (190 mm), Depth-17.5” (443 mm)



Ross Mixer
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Servo-hydraulic Loading Frames

Allows for the performance of multiaxial testing at low and high cycle fatigue over a wide range of temperature. Automated test control software, fixtures, and grips are available to perform American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) tests to determine fatigue and fracture properties of conventional materials as well as of soft materials as single crystals or biomaterials.



Servo-hydraulic multi-actuator structural testing system

Used for experimental investigations of structural integrity by providing the capability to perform quasi-static and/or dynamic fatigue testing on large structural components such as automotive frames, subsystems and large castings. This capability is of great importance to validate the numerical simulation studies of actual structures or multi-piece substructural components.



Spectrometer
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SPECTROMAXx provides analytical capabilities previously achieved only with conventional photomultiplier systems. All of the chemical elements requiring analysis by the metal industry can be determined - including traces of carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen. The SPECTROMAXx is well suited for applications like die cast or injection molding as well as for standard requirements in steel or non-ferrous foundries, also multi-matrix applications for incoming and outgoing inspection and all applications in the automotive industry.



Sputter-Coater

Polaron Sputter Coater, Rotary Planetary Stage. Allows even for coating Gold.



TalySurf
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Taylor-Hobson Talysurf CLI 2000 Gauge System (3-d surface measurement, down to 10 nm accuracy, 3 non-touch and one touch mesurement)



TGA/DSC/FTIR/MS
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Tmax: 2400 C Atmosphere: H2, N2, Ar, Air and mixed gases
Modular system: interchangeable DTA, DSC and TGA modules with the same basic structure
High-precision balance in high position, available with two weighing capacities: 35 g or 100 g Simultaneous TGA-DTA measurements up to 2400°C, TGA-DSC up to 1600°C Coupling with MS, FTIR, GC, etc. gas analyzers by either thermo regulated capillary or the Supersonic System (sampling by supersonic expansion) for mass spectrometry measurements up to 1024 amu



Triboindenter
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For depth-censoring nanoindention.



Vacuum Sintering Furnace
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Temperature range : 500-1400°C
Process Atmosphere : Vacuum
Ideal for laboratory research, this furnace with a tube diameter of 4” and hot zone length of approximately 6” has programmable temperature controls with multiple soaks and ramps. The furnace is also equipped with a external thermocouple to measure and accurate monitor the actual temperature. Vacuum is generated by a turbo-molecular pump and is capable of vacuum levels of 10-3 mtorr.



X-ray CT
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Phoenix X-ray Computed Tomography system with Dual focus (220KV-Microfocus and 150KVNanofocus) reaching 1 micron resolution.