An Analysis of Approaches to High-Performance Powder Metallurgy,
German, R., Myers, N., Mueller, T., Sethi, G., & Enneti, R. K. (2004). An Analysis of Approaches to High-Performance Powder Metallurgy,. Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials - 2004, Part 3. Princeton, NJ: Metal Powder Industries Federation. 76-88.
High performance comes with full density. Full-density, net-shape water-atomized powder compacts have been demonstrated for 40 years. Every few years there is a new invention that offers a new technology to make powder metallurgy competitive with wrought materials. The fact that full-density processes have long been known indicates the fundamental barriers are not densification; often they are cost, shape complexity, or tolerance issues. This presentation analyzes the response of water atomized steel powders to densification via changes in particle size, strain, stress, strain rate, temperature, and other basic parameters to map the conditions required for full-density in compaction or sintering. Economic criteria are laced with dimensional control and shape complexity issues, showing that densification is not the barrier. In other words, current efforts are solving the wrong problem. Our research shows the barriers come from holding tolerances in a cost-effective process in the context of long-established processing equipment.