Finite Element Analysis of the Sintering of Stainless Steel 316L Powder Compacts
Zhang, R., Engel, R. S., Salamon, N. J., & German, R. (2002). Finite Element Analysis of the Sintering of Stainless Steel 316L Powder Compacts. Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials - 2002, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ. 9.60-9.68.
Implementation of an accurate sintering model into a finite element simulation program can significantly improve Powder Metallurgy (P/M) part properties and processing efficiency. The densification and creep behavior of stainless steel powders during free sintering has been simulated and the material model has been implemented by linking user subroutines to the ABAQUS finite element code. This approach is based upon the continuum theories of elastic and nonlinear-viscous deformation of porous bodies. The nonuniform density distribution of the green compact is considered as an initial condition for the FEM model. The porosity is updated during the simulation. Grain growth, gravity, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, and other heterogeneous factors are also considered during the simulation. Several applications with different powder size range have been performed and the simulation results of axial shrinkage and density distribution changes have been compared before and after sintering. Dilatometry tests have been performed to validate the simulation results.